Proje Geliştirme ve
Koordinasyon Birimi

2016-05-06 Ukraine: The Development of Nanoporous Hydrogen Storages

The Development of Nanoporous Hydrogen Storages

Description of the project offered: 
The hydrogen storages that use physical adsorption are basically subdivided into two types: carbon-based porous adsorbents and the metal-organic framework structures. In the first case the carbon with different metals added into it, is the main element that forms porous structures (nanotubes, nonafibres, fullerenes). In the second case the wide range of elements and their combinations are used for construction of framework structures. The main methods used for production of such adsorbents are the magnetron and arc sputtering and chemical and physical vapor deposition. 
The physical adsorption energy is not high (4kJ/mole), therefore the hydrogen release occurs at low temperatures including the liquid nitrogen temperature; however we failed to succeed in adsorbing the sufficient amount of hydrogen so far. 
The problems enumerated above predetermine the need of design of porous structures, whose physical adsorption heat should be increased up to 15-20 kJ/mole. The heat of chemical adsorption in metal-hydride systems should be decreased to an analogous value.
The purpose of our project is to form the materials that are capable of retaining hydrogen both in its molecular and atomic states. The latest research shows that the set task can be resolved using the nanoporous nanocrystalline structures.
Our work experience gained during the last years shows that the best results can be achieved due to the use of radiation technologies. These technologies allow for maximum increase in the degree of nonequilibrium process of materials production, which is mandatory for nanostructures formation. We have developed and use now the ion beam-assisted deposition technology (IBAD method) for creation of thin-film hydrogen adsorbents. It is known that this method is based on intensive bombardment of deposited material with high energy gas ion beams, which leads to the cardinal change in the mechanisms of grain nucleation and growth. The formed nanostructures in combination with intergranular nanoporosity are ideal objects for hydrogen adsorption. Irradiation with the mixed beams of reactive and inert gases allows us to maintain the high degree of nonequilibrium process both at the stage of porous structure nucleation and at the stage of its formation. Presence of these gases is considered to be a determining factor for creation of intergranular gas-filled and vacuum pores. The radiation-enhanced diffusion of these gases adsorbed during deposition and implanted by ion beam leads to nitride phase creation and accumulation of gases in intergranular pores preventing thus from grain boundary closure. The adsorption characteristics of these pores will be regulated by their size distribution and gas content. Such structures can be used not only as reversible gas storages but for gas separation, purification and cold to hot insulation. 
By this time we created nanoporous (V,Ti)-N(Ar/He) compounds and studied their structural and phase changes at all the stages of film growth as well as their electrophysical, mechanical and adsorption properties. It is shown that the variation of basic parameters of the process of ion beam –assisted deposition allows for formation of pores of a different size that are filled with gases to a different degree. The adsorption capacity of pores was changed from 4.5 to 7.4 wt.% H2. 
It should be noted that nitrogen ion bombardment during deposition provides formation of nanoporous structures and nitrides as well. Such combination gives an opportunity to simultaneously use both physical and chemical adsorption mechanisms.
Project proposer:   Aleksey Guglya ()
Partner role:  Project participant 
Partner organisation:  Research
Call for proposal title:  N/A 

Description of the collaboration sought: 

Expertise sought: Hydrogen and fuel cells, Energy storage. Energy. Transport, 
Roles sought: Project coordinator, Project participant, 
Organisation types sought: Research, Small or medium-sized enterprise (SME), Industry, 
Countries sought: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom