Proje Geliştirme ve
Koordinasyon Birimi

2016-01-29 Egypt: Equine Endometritis

Equine Endometritis
Description of the project offered: 
Equine endometritis is an important cause of subfertility, affecting approximately 15% of Thoroughbred mares and resulting in sizable economic losses to the equine industry each year (Troedsson, 1999). In the survey of veterinarians in equine practice in the United States, endometritis was ranked third in importance behind colic and respiratory tract disease.
Failure to remove bacteria, spermatozoa and inflammatory exudate post-breeding may lead to inflammation of endometrium. Moreover, the factors which underlie susceptibility to endometritis are: defects in genital anatomy, impaired myometrial contractions, impaired immune defense, overproduction of mucus and inadequate lymphatic drainage, abnormal mucociliary clearance and cervical function.
Uterine inflammation has been proposed as a mechanism for impaired myometrial contractility and accumulation of inflammatory products in the uterine lumen. Neutrophils entering the uterine lumen are the first line of immune defense against invading bacteria. Their migration from the blood is enhanced by chemotactic factors present in uterine fluid which are increased after introduction of infection and inflammation into the uterus. 
Impaired and reduced myometrial activity will, together with dysfunctional opsonisation, result in impaired phagocytosis of pathogens. Breakdown of uterine physical clearance mechanisms is believed to play an important role in susceptibility to persistent endometritis . Concentrations of immunoglobulins in uterine secretion in susceptible mares are similar, or even elevated compared to those of resistant mares. 
To detect endometritis the following techniques can be used: clinical examinations including rectal palpation, ultrasonography, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological examination. Findings of uterine fluid, vaginitis, vaginal discharge, short inter-oestrus intervals, inflammatory uterine cytology, positive uterine culture and positive histopathology confirm the diagnosis . However, in subclinical cases, there are no signs like above but excessive oedema post-mating and white lines between endometrial folds on ultrasound may occur.
Traditional therapy (post-breeding uterine lavage, oxytocin and intrauterine antibiotics) is not always sufficient. The goals of successful therapy are correcting the defects in uterine defence, neutralizing virulent bacteria and controlling postbreeding inflammation. Supporting treatment may be added to essential therapy to modulate the immunological uterine response or penetrate biofilm. Additional therapy includes systemic antibiotics, mucolytics: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), kerosene and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), intrauterine chelators: ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid-tromethamine (EDTA-Tris), immunomodulators (cell wall extracts of Mycobacterium phlei and Propionibacterium acnes), corticosteroids (prednisolone, dexamethasone), systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrugs (NSAIDs) and others.

Autologous/heterologous plasma has been used intrauterine by some authors. The exogenous plasma contains opsonins which enhance phagocytosis of bacteria and it could be useful in treatment of endometritis. Plasma is thought to increase the efficiency of the mare’s cellular uterine defense mechanisms.
some recent studies used leukocytes in mares with experimentally evoked endometritis. Fresh leukocytes administration into the uterus caused rapidly evacuation of bacteria from uterus than frozen and lysed leukocytes. There are no data about practical application of this therapy in the field.
anothor studies reported that mares susceptible to PMIE, intrauterine infusion of autologous PRP is associated with a lower incidence of delayed uterine clearance following insemination and improved pregnancy rates. 

the aim of this project :
- study the pathogenesis of equine endometritis at molecular level for developing of specific biomarkers
- examination of recent proposed therapy for the treatment of equine endometritis
Project proposer:   Ahmed Elmesiry (Egypt)
Partner role:  Project coordinator 
Partner organisation:  Research
Call for proposal title:  N/A 

Description of the collaboration sought: 
we are an Egyptian research institute have a wide range of facilities including an experimental farm animal, Diagnostic and endoscopy Unit, artificial insemination and embryo transfer dept and several diagnostic laboratories.

we are seeking for an international cooperation with a partner that can work with us and develop ideas for our projects 
Expertise sought: Agriculture, Veterinary and animal sciences, Medical biotechnology, Biotechnology, Medicine. Health, Industrial biotech, Industrial manufacture, 
Roles sought: Project coordinator, Project participant, 
Organisation types sought: Research, 
Countries sought: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Iceland, Israel, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Turkey, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Kuwait, New Zealand, South Africa, United States, United Arab Emirates, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Swaziland, Malaysia,